• Linda Serra Hagedorn Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010, the United States of America
  • Agustina Veny Purnamasari Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50010, the United States of America


We amended the rich PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) data to include culture measures of power distance; uncertainty avoidance; individualism-collectivism; masculinity-femininity; and long- and short-term orientation based on country. The added scores of each country on the culture components were obtained from the extensive studies of Hofstede and colleagues (2010). The dependent variables in our study are students’ achievements in the fields of reading, math, and science from various countries taken from PISA data. There are three proposed research questions: Do the various aspects of culture have an effect on students’ achievement internationally? Which of the culture measures explains a significant proportion of the variance of reading, math, and/or science achievement scores? Are the values specifically explanatory for one type of achievement over another? In order to answer our research questions, we have created a series of regression equations that regress achievement scores on a series of control variables as well as country culture scores.


Basl, J. (2011). Effect of school interest in natural sciences: A comparison of the Czech Republic, Germany, Finland, and Norway based on PISA 2006. International Journal of Science Education, 33 (1), 145-157.

Brueggeman, M. A. (2008). An outsider’s view of beginning literacy in Finland: Assumptions, lessons learned, and sisu. Literacy Research and Instruction, 47 (1), 1-8.  

Dolin, J.  & Krogh, L. B. (2010).The relevance and consequences of PISA science in a Danish context. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8, 565-592.

Dudek, E. (2008). Principles and Concepts for an International Teaching Ministry.Journal of Missions.Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Hofstede, G. (1998). Masculinity and femininity: The taboo dimension of national cultures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Nevis, J. L., Bearden, W. O., & Money, B. (2007). Ethical values and long-term orientation.Journal of Business Ethics, 71:261-274.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2004). Learning for tomorrow’s world: First results from PISA 2003. Paris: OECD.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2009). PISA 2009 scores and rankings by country.PISA 2009 Database. Retrieved from

Perry, L. B. &McConney. (2010). Does SES of the school matter?An examination of socioeconomic status and student achievement using PISA 2003.Teachers College Record, 112 (4), 1137-1162.

Reading Today.(Feb-March, 2005). Finland still tops in PISA study. Reading Today, 22 (4), p.1.

Richardson, R. M. & Smith, S. W. (2007). The influence of high/ low context culture and power distance on choice of communication media: Students’ media choice to communicate with professors in Japan and America. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 479-501.

Vandello, J. A. & Cohen, D. (1999).Patterns of Individualism and Collectivism Across the United States.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, 77 (2), 279-292.

Venaik, S. & Brewer, P. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 1294-1315.








Research Article