GLOBAL-READY WORKFORCE LEVERAGING DIVERSITY IN EDUCATION FOR WORKFORCE READINESS IN THE CARIBBEAN
Change has become commonplace in every sphere of life and learners must be taught as part of their formal and informal learning and development indoctrination to deal with many unknowns and interact in diverse environments. Diversity is an important asset in any educational establishment as well as the changing workplace and must be fully leveraged in the every teaching and learning curriculum in the Caribbean. When teaching and learning organizations embrace diversity as an element of their learning and development culture, learners are given a competitive edge, given the level of cultural sensitivity they develop in their interaction with other students who are dissimilar and when the teaching and learning process and content, address the subject of diversity. Thus, when students are prepared to deal with the challenges presented in the globally connected and economically linked society, they are better prepared to succeed in the workplace both locally and globally. Therefore, educators, policy-makers and workplace professionals must be intentional in their chosen inclusion strategies to truly cultivate a learning climate that is safe to learn because students are made to feel valued, recognized and appreciated for who they are and what they bring and share in each learning encounter.
Keywords: diversity; globalization; culturally dissimilar; education leadership, generationally dissimilar; linguistically dissimilar; ideologically dissimilar, biologically dissimilar, Caricom, economically dissimilar, West Indies, globalized teaching and learning, Caribbean, teaching and learning diversely.References
Aleksander P. J. Ellis, A. P. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., West, B. J. and Moon, H. (2003). Team learning: Collectively connecting the dots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 821-835.
Arsenault, P. M. (2003). Validating generational differences A legitimate diversity and leadership issue. The Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 25(2, 124-141.
Ashton, D., Sung, J. Raddon, A. and Riordan, T. (2008). Challenging the myths about learning and training in small and medium-sized enterprises: Implications for public policy. Employment Sector working paper. International Labour Office, Geneva: ILO, 1-65. (Employment Sector – Employment Working Paper No. 1; 2008).
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (1991). Cross-Cultural Competencies and Objectives. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from www.amcd-aca.org.
Barcelo, N. R. (April, 2010). Reimagining Diversity in Our Institutions. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 27(6), 20.
Barker, D. (2012). Caribbean Agriculture in a Period of Global Change: Vulnerabilities and Opportunities. Caribbean Studies, 40(2), 41-61.
Becker, H. and Useem. R. H. (Feb, 1942). Sociological analysis of the dyad. American Sociological Review, 7(1), 13-26.
Beer, M. and Nohria, N. (May-June, 2000). Cracking the code of change. Harvard Business Review, 13-23.
Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 291-317.
Brooks, J. S. and Normore, A. H. (2010). Educational leadership and globalization: Literacy for a global perspective. Educational Policy January 2010 24(1), 52-82.
Burnes, B. (December, 2004). Kurt Lewin and complexity theories: Back to the future? Journal of Change Management, 4,(4), 309-325.
Camden, C. (July, 2008). U.S. Job market: Employment diversity. Address by CARL CAMDEN, Chief Executive Officer, Kelly Services Delivered to the Cleveland City Club, Cleveland, Ohio, 415-419.
CaribSeek Encyclopedia. Caribbean Population and Languages 2001. Retrieved November 22, 2011 from http://encyclopedia.caribbean_Population_and_Languages.
Caribbean Epidemiology Center (Carec/PAHO/WHO) (2011). All CAREC member countries: Population distribution by age group and sex (1990 – 2010).
Cerna, L., Hollifield, J., & Hynes, W. (2012). Globalization Backlash? The Influence of Global Governance in Trade and Immigration. The Influence of Global Governance in Trade and Immigration.
Charan, R., Drotter, S. and Noel, J. (2001). The leadership pipeline: How to build the leadership-powered company. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Charles, K. R. (2000). Unity in diversity: A study of work values, attitudes and motivation in multicultural society. Inter-American Journal of Psychology, 34(1), 61-79.
Clark, C. (Feb, 2010). Just how important is diversity? Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 27(1), 16.
Cogburn, D. (1998). Globalization, knowledge, education and training in the information age. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://unesco.org/webworld/infoethics_2/eng/papers_23.htm.
Cohen, M. N., (April 17, 1998). Culture, not race, explains human diversity. The Education Digest, 64(2) p30, 5p.
Colón, A. J. A. (2010). Globalization and the Post-Creole Imagination: Notes on Fleeing the Plantation (review). Caribbean Studies, 38(1), 216-219.
Cook, L. D. and Bastick, T (2009). Teachers professional growth: Examining the effect of teacher maturity on LOC orientation. Caribbean Curriculum, 16(1), 93-104.
Cornoy, M. (2005). Globalization, educational trends and the open society (Conference Paper). Open Society Institute (Ed). OSI Education Conference 2005: “Education and Open Society: A critical look at new perspective and demands” (pp.XX-XX )Budapest, Hungary.
Couch, B. (2006.). A Plan of Education for a Global Economy: How South Carolina is using the Career Cluster approach to prepare students for a global economy.
Cummins, J. (Jun 1997). Cultural and linguistic diversity in education: A mainstream issue? Educational Review, 49,(2) 105-114.
Davis, A. M., Smith, M. J., Sorenson, T. C. (2004). Embracing Diversity in Pursuit of Excellence: Report of the President’s Commission on Diversity and Equity. Retrieved from the University of Virginia President’s Commission on Diversity and Equity. Web site: http://ucareva.org/resources/uva/EmbracingDiversityReport_04.pdf.
DiTomaso, N. and Hooijberg, R. (1996). Diversity and the demands of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 7(2), 163-187.
Draft, R. L. and Marcic, D. (2001). Shift: The learning organization, Understanding Management, NY: Harcourt College Publishers.
Dollard, M. F. and Winefield, A. H. (2002). Mental health: over employment, underemployment, unemployment and healthy jobs. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), 1(3), 2-26.
Eagly, A. H. and Chin, J. L. (2010). Diversity and leadership in a changing world. American Psychologist, 65(3), 216-224.
Fairl, B. (2009). Diversity in supporting our nation. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 26(23), p20-20, 1p.
Fenwick, T. (Winter 2001). Tide of change: New themes and questions in workplace learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, (92).
Gardenswartz, L. and Rowe, A. (2003). Diverse teams at work: Capitalizing on the power of diversity. Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management, 32-33.
Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106-116.
Generational difference chart (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2011 from http://doc.google.com/viewer?pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjDYz22-NY21CFnJkMJVmtpN3...
George, J., & Lewis, T. (2011). Exploring the global/local boundary in education in developing countries: the case of the Caribbean. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(6), 721-734.
Hall, D. T. (2002). Careers in and out of organizations. Thousand, CA: Sage Publications, Inc., 13.
Harvey, C. (2000). The EFA Assessment Process in the Caribbean and the quest for inclusion and quality: Implications for adult and teacher education [Monogram Series 25] In L. Quamina-Aiyejina, series ed. Education for all in the Caribbean: Assessment 2000.
Hewapathirana, G. I. and Bowen, M. M. (2008). Globalization cannot be ignored in Human Resource Development (HRD): European Union (EU) case study findings. Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Work and Human Resource Education, University of Minnesota.
Hirschhorn, L. (July 2002). Campaigning for Change. Harvard Business Review, 23.
Hodgkinson, H. (October, 1998). Demographic of diversity for the 21st century. Education Digest, 64(2) p4, 4p.
Hodgkinson, H. L (Dec. 2000/Jan. 2001). Educational demographics: What teachers should know. Educational Leadership, 58(4) 6-11.
Hofstede, G. (January, 1994) Management scientists are human. Management Science, 40(1), 4-13.
Gunter, H. M. (2006). Educational leadership and the challenge of diversity. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 34(2) 257–268.
Guillen, M. F. (January, 2000). Diversity in globalization. Organizational change in Argentina, South Korea and Spain: Discussants: Evelyne Huber and Michael Mosher, Paper, 6 (unpublished), 1-41.
Gurin, P., Nagda, B. R., and Lopez, G. E., (2004). The benefits of diversity in education for democratic citizenship. Journal of Social Issues, 60(1), 17-34.
International Labour Organization (July 2006). Facts on decent work.
International Labour Organization Decent Work Team for the Caribbean (2011). ILO Global employment trends 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://www.ilocarib.tt/index.php?option=com_contentandview=articleandid=1330:ilo-gl.
International Labour Organization Decent Work Team (2011). Caribbean Countries and Territories. Retrieved October 28, 2011 from http://ilocarib.org.tt/index.php?option=com_contentandview=articleandid=1146anditemi..
International Labour Organization (2011). Global employment trends: The challenge of a job recovery. International Labour Office.
International Monetary Fund (2008). Globalization: A Brief Overview. Retrieved November 2, 2011 from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2008/053008.htm.
Jokinen, T. (2005). Global leadership competencies: A review and discussion. Journal of European Industrial Training, 29(3), 199-216.
Jones, B. F. (June 2008). The knowledge trap: Human capital and development reconsidered. NBER Working Paper No. 14138.
Karoly, L. A. and Panis, C. A. W. (2004). 21st century at work: Forces shaping the future workforce and workplace in the United States. The RAND Corporation, Labour and Population, 1-258.
Kezar, A. (July/August, 2008). Leadership strategies and the politics of diversity. The Journal of Higher Education, 79(4), 406-441.
Kim, Y. (2002). A state of art review on the impact of technology on skill demand in OECD countries. Journal of Education and Work, 15(1), 89-109.
Kirk, J. J., Woody, C., Burns, N., Howard, S. and Rice, M. (2001). Workplace counseling tools. ERIC, 1-29.
Kiser, A. I. T. and Scobey, B. (October, 2010). Assessing Diversity Awareness in University Business Students at Hispanic Servicing Liberal arts Institution. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 9(4), 294-300.
Krink, P. and Strack, R. (June, 2008). The talent crunch:. People Management, 30-31.
Kotter, J. P. (January, 2007). Leading change: Why transformation efforts fail. Harvard Business Review, 2-12.
Lanier, L. T. (2004). Building a reservoir of high-potential women and diverse groups. In L. A. Berger and D. R. Berger The talent management handbook: creating organizational excellence by identifying, developing and promoting your best people. New York: McGraw-Hill, 273.
Lewis, T. (2010). Assessing social identity and collective efficacy as theories of group motivation at work. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 963-980.
Lewis, T. and Simmons, L. (2010), Creating a research culture in Caribbean universities. International Journal of Educational Development, 30(4), 337-344.
Lippin, L. B. (2008). Are we really appreciating Difference? Themes for a more responsible participation in a multicultural world. APTi Bulletin of Psychological Type, 31(3), 23-26.
Manning, M. L (Winter 2000). Understanding diversity, accepting others: Realities and directions. Educational Horizons, 78(2), 125-127.
Mark, P. (2008). Enhancing quality assurance in the education systems of the Caricom States. The Caribbean Council for Education and Teacher Education.
Marquardt, M. J. (2002). Building the learning organization: Mastering the 5 elements for corporate learning, 2nd Ed. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, Inc., ix.
Marques, J. F. (Winter 2010). Colorful window dressing: A critical review on workplace diversity in three major American corporations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(4), 435-446.
Martin, M., & Bray, M. (2011). Tertiary education in small states: planning in the context of globalization.UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). Retrieved June 24, 2013 from http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/179846.
Mayhew, M. J. and Graunwald, H. E. (2006). Factor contributing to faculty incorporation of diversity-related course content. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(1), 148-168. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3838735.
Medley, B. C. and Akan, O. H. (Summer 2008). Creating positive change in community organizations: A case for rediscovering Lewin. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 18(4), 485-496.
Miller, K.J. and Sessions, M.M. (2005) Infusing tolerance, diversity, and social personal curriculum into inclusive social studies classes using family portraits and contextual teaching and learning. Teaching Exceptional Children Plus, 1(3) Article 1.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, July, 6, 2005.Workplace generation gap: Understand differences among colleagues. Mayo Clinic.com Special to CNN.com.
NAFSA: Association of International Educators (2006). Americans call for leadership on international education: A national survey on preparing for a global society. NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 1-3.
Neves, P. and Caetano, A. (2009). Commitment to change: Contributions to trust in the supervisor and work outcomes. Group and Organization Management, 34(6) 623–644.
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 301.
Pascarella, E. T, Edison, M, Nora, A, Hagedorn, L. S. and Terenzini, P. T (March-April, 1996). Influences on students' openness to diversity and challenge in the first year of college. The Journal of Higher Education, 67(2), 174-195.
Pea, R., D. (1987). Socializing the knowledge in transfer problem. In E. De Corte Special issue on "acquisition and t r a n s f e r of knowledge and cognitive skills. International Journal of Educational Research, pp. 38-62.
Premdas, R. R. (2011). Identity, ethnicity, and the Caribbean homeland in an era of globalization. Social Identities, 17(6), 811-832.
Premdas, R. R. (December 1998). Ethnicity and identity in the Caribbean: Decentering and myth. Working Paper #234.
Raabe, B., Frese, M. and Beehr, T. A. (2007). Action regulation theory and career self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior 70, 297–311.
Reeves, T. C., and Oh, E. J. (2007). Generation differences and educational technology research. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. J. G. van Merrienboer and M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Resurreccion, P. (December, 18, 2008). Diversity and globalization. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Paul_Resurreccion.
Roach, R. (Jan 2009). The new era of diversity. Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 25(25), 11-13.
Russ-Eft, D (2002). A typology of training design and work environment factors affecting workplace learning and transfer. Human Resource Development Review, 1(1), 45-65.
Schaefer, R. T. (2004). Sociology matters. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 205.
Schruijer, S. G. L. and Vansina, L. S. (1999). Leadership and Organizational Change: An Introduction. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 1-8.
Schwartz, S. H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 48 (1), 23–47.
Scott, P. (2000). Globalisation and higher education: Challenges for the 21st century. Journal of Studies in International Education, 4 3-10.
Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. NY: Doubleday, 312.
Senge, P., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R., Roth, G. and Smith, B. (1999). A fifth discipline resource: The dance of change: the challenges to sustaining momentum in learning organizations. New York: Doubleday/Currency.
Skinner, B. F. (2005). Science and human behavior. The B.F. Skinner Foundation.
Stevens, M. J. and Campion, M. A. (1994). The knowledge, skills and ability requirement for teamwork: Implications for human resource management. Journal of Management, 20(2), 503-530.
Summer, J. (November, 2008). Governance, globalization, and political economy: perspectives from Canadian adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 59(1), 22-41.
Stopford, J. (Winter, 1998-1999). Multinational corporations. Foreign Policy, 113, 12-24.
Terenzini, P. T., Cabrera, A. F., Colbeck, C. L., Bjorklund, S. A. and Parente, J. M. (2001). The Journal of Higher Education, 72(5), 509-531.
Thomas-Hope, E. (2002). Skilled labour migration from developing countries: Study on the Caribbean region. International Labour Office, Geneva: International Migration Programme
Tolbize, A. (August 2008). Generational differences in the workplace. University of Minnesota, Research and Training Center on Community Living.
United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO) (2008). Culture; What is cultural diversity. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13031andURL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE...
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Population Estimate and Projection Section(2010). World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm.
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division of the United Nations (August, 2010). Population facts: Sex differential in mortality, (No. 2010/4). Location: United Nations,
Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat (November 30 – December 2, 2005). Expert group meeting on international migration and development in the Latin American and the Caribbean. Location: Mexico City.
Population Division Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, World population prospects: The 2010 revision. Retrieved http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm.
Umbach, P. D. and Kuh, G. D. (2006). Student experiences with diversity at liberal arts colleges: Another claim for distinctiveness. The Journal of Higher Education, Special Issue: Moving into the Next 75 Years, 77(1), 169-192.
U.S. Department of Commence and Vice President Al Gore National Partnership for Reinventing Government (1996.) Benchmarking study: Best practices in achieving workforce diversity.
U.S. Department of Labour (2002). Build to work: A common standard for skill standards. National Skills Standard Board, 1-41.
Vaira, M. (2004). Globalization and higher education organizational change: A framework for analysis. Higher Education 48: 483–510.
Walton, M. (Winter 2009). Avoiding career wrecking behavior: Michael Walton presents his view of reducing executive risk. Assessment and Development Matters 1(4),8-9.
Whitt, E. J., Edison, M. I., Pascarella, E. T., Terenzini, P. T. and Nora, A. (2001). Influences on students’ openness to diversity and challenges in the second and third year of college. The Journal of Higher Education, 72(2), 172-204.
World Bank (September, 2000). World Development Report 2000/2001 review: Attacking poverty. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 1-13.
Copyright (c) 2013 International Journal of Global Education (IJGE) ISSN: 2146-9296
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.