STAFF CASUALISATION, PROMOTION REQUIREMENTS AND WORK ENVIRONMENT AS PREDICTORS OF WORK-RELATED STRESS AMONG FEMALE BANK EMPLOYEES IN SOME SELECTED BANKS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA
The study examined staff casualisation, promotion requirements and work environment as predictors of work-related stress among female bank employees in Ibadan. It adopted a descriptive survey research design. A total of seventy (70) female bank employees, selected using convenience sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to “Work Stress Scales, a battery of four scales. The battery comprised of Section A, which centres on respondents’ socio-demographic information, and four other scales; Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ, 21 items, r=0.94), Casualization Descriptive Questionnaire (CDQ) (12-items, r=.77), researcher-developed Bank Staff Promotion Requirements Assessment Scale (15-items, r=.86) and Work Environment Assessment Scale for Banks (15-items, r=.88). Three research questions were raised and answered in the study, and data was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results revealed that all the independent variables (staff casualisation, promotion requirements and work environment) were significant at 0.05 level of significance (.883**, 435** and -.742**) to the prediction of work-related stress among female bank employees. It also revealed the joint contribution of independent variables (staff casualisation, promotion requirements and work environment) on dependent variable (work-related stress) was significant (f (351.029) = 8.597; R2= .920, R2=841, p<.05). About 84.1% variation was accounted for by the independent variables. Results also revealed that all of staff casualisation, promotion requirements and work environment were potent predictors of work-related stress. The most potent factor was promotion requirements, followed by staff casualisation, while work environment negatively correlated with work-related stress. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the most effective way of reducing work stress is to eliminate the stressors by redesigning the jobs. Also, that bank management should employee permanent staff and not based on casualization, promotion requirement should be easy and humane and banks should to create work environment where employees take pleasure in their work, feel safe and secured, to ensure a stress-free work life.
Keywords: Staff Casualisation, Promotion Requirements, Work Environment, Work-related Stress, Female Bank Employees.
Adeoye, A.O. and Durosaro, I.A. 2010. Correlates of stress among female academics at the University of Ilorin. Journal of Guidance and Counseling 4(1): 117-126
Adeoye, O.A., Adeomi, A.A., Abodunrin, O.L., Olugbenga-Bello, A. and Abdulsalam, S.T. 2015. Awareness of Occupational Hazards and Health Problems among Sawmill Workers in Osun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research & Review, 2, 1-14.
Agbozo, G. K., Owusu, I. S., Hoedoafia, M. A. & Atakorah, Y B. 2017. The Effect of Work Environment on Job Satisfaction: Evidence from the Banking Sector in Ghana. Journal of Human Resource Management. Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 12-18.
Akanji, B. 2013. Occupational Stress: A Review on Conceptualizations, Causes and Cure. Economic Insights; Trends and Challenges Vol. II (LXV) No. 3:73-80.
Akinleye, G.A. & Hassan, E.M. 2014. Occupational and family stress: Coping strategies for employed mothers. Journal of Educational Studies. 21(2): 143-146.
Ashfaq A. and Ramzan, M. 2013. Effects of job stress on employees’ job performance: A study on banking sector of Pakistan Journal of Business and Management (11): 6: 61-68
Babu, R.P. and Vembu, K. 2014. Occupational stress experienced by female employees in banking sector. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 2(3): 154-160
Chandrasekhar, K. 2011. Workplace environment and its impact on organizational Performance, International Journal of Business Systems, Vol. 7, pp. 17-18.
Dar, L. A; Nazeem, M; and Khan, U. D. K. 2011. Impact of stress on employees’ job performance in business sector of Pakistan. Global Journal of Management and Business Research 11 (6): 1-4.
Das, P and Srivastav, A.K. 2015. A study on stress among employees of public sector banks in Asansol, West Bengal. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(7): 108-113
De Cuyper N., Isaksson K. 2017. Employment Contracts and Well-Being Among European Workers. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.
Devi A., Sharma J. 2013. Investigating role stress in frontline bank employees: a cluster-based approach. IIMB Manag. Rev. 25, 171–178.
Douglas, K. E. and Nkporbu A. K. 2017. Prevalence and Pattern of Workplace Violence and Ethnic Discrimination among Workers in a Tertiary Institution in Southern Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 4(3) 16 pages.
Essien, B.S. 2014. Occupational stress and its associated risk factors among female employees of commercial banks In Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities 2(6): 246-258
Fapohunda, T.M. 2012. Employment Casualisation and Degradation of Work in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 9.
Faremi, F.A., Ogunfowokan, A.A., Mbada, C., Olatubi, M.I. and Ogungbemi, A.V. 2014. Occupational Hazard Awareness and Safety Practices among Nigerian Sawmill Workers. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 3, 1244-1248.
Holmes, S. and Flood, M. 2013. Genders at Work: Exploring the Role of Workplace Equality in Preventing Men’s Violence Against Women (Sydney, White Ribbon).
Holmgren K, Hensing G, Dahlin-Ivanoff S. 2009. Development of a questionnaire assessing work-related stress in women - identifying individuals who risk being put on sick leave. Disabil Rehabil.;31(4):284–292.
ILO. 2013. Work-related violence and its integration into existing surveys, room document 7 distributed at the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, Geneva, 2–11 Oct. 2013. MEVWM-NR-R-[WORKQ-160713-1] -En.docx 59
Islam, J.N., Mohajan, H.K. and Datta, R. 2012. Stress Management Policy Analysis: A Preventative Approach, International Journal of Economics and Research, 3(4).
Ismail, M.J and Hong, T.T. 2011. Identifying work related stress among employees in the Malaysian financial sector. Western Journal of Management, 3(2): 229-243
Juster, R.P, Moskowitz, D.S, Lavoie, J & D'Antono, B. 2013. Sex-specific interaction effects of age, occupational status, and workplace stress on psychiatric symptoms and allostatic load among healthy Montreal workers Stress.
Kalejaiye, P.O. 2014. The Rise of Casual Work in Nigeria: Who Loses, Who Benefits? African Research Review: An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. 8 (1), 156-176 ISSN 1994-9057 (Print) ISSN 2070--0083 (Online) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v8i1.12
Kaur K., Kaur P., Kumar P. 2017. Stress, coping mechanisms and its socio-economic impact on organisations-A review. Indian J. Econ. Dev. 13, 744–751.
Kayii, N. E. & Dagogo, A. L. 2017. Casualization and Job Satisfaction among Contract Staff of Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. International Journal of Social Sciences and Management Research Vol. 3 No.2 2017 ISSN: 2545-5303
Kumar, S.G.; Sundaram, N.D. 2014. Prevalence of stress level among Bank employees in urban Puducherry, India. Ind. Psychiatry J., 23, 15–17.
Leblebici, D. 2012. Impact of Workplace Quality on Employee’s Productivity: Journal of Business, Economics and Finance, Vol. 1, Iss. 1 pp.38-40.
Lopes C. & Kachalia, D. (2016). Impact of job stress on employee performance in banking sector, International Journal of Science Technology and Management, Vol.No.5, Issue No.03, March.ISSN 2394-1537.
Manjunatha M K., & Renukamurthy, T.P. 2017. “Stress among Banking Employees: A Literature Review.” International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah, 5(1), 206-213.
Mannocci, A., Marchini, L., Scognamiglio, A., Sinopoli, A., De Sio, S., Sernia, S. and Torre, G. L. 2018. Are Bank Employees Stressed? Job Perception and Positivity in the Banking Sector: An Italian Observational Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 15, 707.
Mohajan, H.K. 2012. The Occupational Stress and Risk of it among the Employees, International Journal of Mainstream Social Science, 2(2): 17–34.
Mollica, K. and Danehower, C. 2014. “Domestic violence and the workplace: The employer’s legal responsibilities”. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 17, 1–11. MEVWM-NR-R-[ WORKQ-160713-1]-En.docx 63
Oginni B., Afolabi G., Erigbe P. 2013. The place of job stress in labour turnover of the banking sector in the Nigerian economy. Int. J. Bus. Manag. Invent. 2, 93–99.
Okafor, E. E. 2010. Sociological Investigation of the use of Casual Workers in Selected Asian Firms in Lagos, Nigeria, Ibadan Journal of the Social Sciences. Vol.8, No.1
Oke, A and Dawson, P. 2014. Contextualizing workplace stress: The experience of bank employees in Nigeria. (Accessed Online. http://ro.uow.edu.au/compapers/503. 15 August 2019
Pohl M., & Tortella T. 2017. A Century of Banking Consolidation in Europe: The History and Archives of Mergers and Acquisitions. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.
Samson, G.N., Waiganjo, M & Koima, J. 2015. Effect of Workplace Environment on the Performance of Commercial Banks Employees in Nakuru Town. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research (IJMSR) Volume 3, Issue 12, PP 76-89
Taiwo, A.S. 2010. The Influence of Environment on Workers’ Productivity: A Case study of Selected Oil and Gas Industry in Lagos, Nigeria.
Tweedie, D. 2011. What‟s Wrong with Casual Work? Working Paper – Centre for Research on Social Inclusion, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Udu, G. O. C. & Eke, G. J. 2018. Occupational Stress and Job Performance of Female Bankers in Bank Branches in Abakaliki, Nigeria. International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 13 No. 1 June,
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Global Education (IJGE) ISSN: 2146-9296
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.